Psychological Empowerment: Issues and Illustration

The thesis of this paper is that the development of a universal and global measure of psychological empowerment may not be a feasible or appropriate goal. It begins by distinguishing between empowerment processes and outcomes. Underlying assumptions are discussed including the notion that empowerment differs across people, contexts, and times. A nomological network that includes intrapersonal, interactional, and behavioural components is also presented. Two examples of psychological empowerment for voluntary service organization members and members of a mutu